wipefs can erase filesystem, raid or partition-table signatures (magic strings) from the specified device to make the signatures invisible for libblkid.

-a, –all
Erase all available signatures. The set of erased signatures can be restricted with the -t list option.

-f, –force
Force erasure, even if the filesystem is mounted. This is required in order to erase the partition table on a block device.

$ wipefs -a /dev/nvme0n1
/dev/nvme0n1: 2 bytes were erased at offset 0x00000438 (ext4): 53 ef

Method 1: Use System Update Process (Automatic Procedure)

  1. Update System Packages

    $ sudo apt update

    This command retrieves information about the latest available package versions from the repositories configured on the system.

  2. Run the upgrade

    Run the following command to upgrade the installed packages, including the kernel, to the latest versions available in the repositories:

    $ sudo apt upgrade
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From man page of iostat in Linux, %util is explained as below.


Percentage of elapsed time during which I/O requests were issued to the device (bandwidth utilization for the device). Device saturation occurs when this value is close to 100%.

I have seen many cases people misuse this metric when to tell if the system runs into disk I/O bottleneck.

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